Technological advancements in fields such as molecular genetics and the human microbiome have resulted in an unprecedented recognition of new bacterial genus/species designations by the Interna-tional Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Knowledge of designations involving clinically significant bacterial species would benefit clinical microbiologists in the context of emerg-ing pathogens, performance of accurate organism identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility test-ing. In anticipation of subsequent taxonomic changes being compiled by the Journal of Clinical Mi-crobiology on a biannual basis, this compendium summarizes novel species and taxonomic revisions specific to bacteria derived from human clinical specimens from the calendar years 2012 through 2015.
Since the invention of the microscope and the discovery of microorganisms in the 17th century , the study of microorganisms and the field of microbiology research have come a long way from the tradi-tional observations of their phenotypic properties/characteristics. Phenotypic characteristics of interest in the characterization and identification of microbes include morphologic characteristics of both indi-vidual cells and groups of cells /colony (cell size, shape and structures), growth characteristics, cellu-lar metabolism and biochemical characteristics . Advances in the techniques used to identify micro-organisms have often led to improved microbial classification in research and diagnosis [3,4].